High cholesterol in children is a growing problem. An elevated cholesterol or triglyceride level can be a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis later in life. More and more frequently elevated lipid levels are being identified in children and teenagers. Our office offers comprehensive evaluation and management of young people with lipid disorders.
All of our physicians are experts in the field of congenital heart disease diagnosis, evaluation, and management. Some of the more complex forms of heart disease that we treat include hypoplastic left heart syndrome, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, pulmonary valve atresia, pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, atrioventricular canal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, Ebstein’s anomaly, and coarctation of the aorta, as well as many other forms of heart disease. We are also experts in heart rhythm disorders such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).
Tricuspid atresia is an abnormality of the tricuspid valve in which the valve fails to develop normally. Typically there is simply a plate of tissue where the normal valve should be. This results in no direct communication between the right atrium and right ventricle. Tricuspid atresia is almost invariably associated with some sort of hypoplasia, or underdevelopment of the right ventricle, due to the lack of adequate blood flow through the valve and into the ventricle. Different types of tricuspid atresia are classified based on the relationship of the two great arteries, the aorta and pulmonary artery. Type I describes patients with normally related great arteries (the most common type, accounting for 70-80% of cases), and Type II refers to patients with transposition of the great arteries (12-25%). Type III, an uncommon type of tricuspid valve atresia (3-6%), usually is associated with more complex abnormalities and malpositions.
The aorta and the pulmonary artery are the two main arteries ("Great Arteries") that carry blood away from the heart. In the normal heart, the pulmonary artery is connected to the right ventricle and carries oxygen-poor blue blood returning from the body to the lungs, where it becomes oxygenated. The oxygen-rich red blood returning from the lungs passes into the left side of the heart where it is pumped by the left ventricle out the aorta. In the normal heart, circulation to the lungs (pulmonary) and the circulation to the body (systemic) are in series, forming one continuous circuit that crosses in the heart, like two rings fusing to form a figure 8.
A heart murmur simply means a noise or sound that is heard in the heart. Heart murmurs in children are very common. Fortunately, most heart murmurs in children are innocent or functional.